Šta mladi misle o ulasku Srbije u Evropsku Uniju?

Jedno od najkontroverznijih pitanja u srpskoj internacionalnoj politici jeste ulazak Srbije u Evropsku Uniju (u daljem tekstu EU). Kako zbog priznavanja Kosova kao jednog od uslova, tako zbog razmatranja o koristi koju Srbija od toga.

Prema statističkim podacima koji su izloženi u Alternativnom izveštaju položaja mladih u Republici Srbiji (KOMS, 2021), 39% mladih podržava ulazak Srbije u EU, 33% je protiv, a 28% nema izraženo mišljanje. Tome treba dodati da 24,6% ispitanih planira da se iseli iz zemlje, čemu se pridružuje još 25,1% njih koji razmišljaju o tome, ali nisu započeli proces planiranja. Prva želja za iseljenje u 62,6% slučajeva su Zapadne Evope, dok je 12,6% njih opredeljeno za SAD.

U prethodnih sedam dana sam obavila neformalne razgovore sa dvadeset mladih osoba koji žive u razvijenijim ili manje razvijenim delovima Srbije, a među sobom se razlikuju po stepenu obrazovanja, posla koji obavljaju, sredine u kojoj se kreću.

Prvo što je moglo da se primeti u toku razgovora, nezavisno od trenutnog ekonomsko-socijalnog statusa osobe, jeste da najveći broj ispitanih stavlja naglasak na svojoj neinformisanosti po pitanju teme o kojoj pričamo, kao i nesigurnost o relevantnosti njihovih odgovora.

Odgovori su obično sadržali osvrt na pozitivne i negativne strane ulaska Srbije u EU i zaključnu neodlučnost o povoljnijoj opciji. Sa druge strane, pogodnosti ulaska u EU u najvećoj meri videli su oni koji razmišljaju ili su već otišli da žive, studiraju ili rade u inostranstvu.

Ispitani mladi su naveli sledeće razloge ZA ulazak Srbije u EU: Ekonomska stabilnost – povećanje životnog standarda, ulaganje u infrastrukturu, jeftinija hrana i tehnika; Vizna liberalizacija i putovanje bez pasoša – olakšano kretanje koje donosi više mogućnosti za školovanje i zaposlenje; Mere koje utiču na zaštitu životne sredine – npr. reciklaža; Rešavanje problema korupcije i nepotizma; Nezavisnost institucija i povećanje mogućnosti za saradnju sa drugim firmama.

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Nasuprot tome, razlozi PROTIV ulaska Srbije u EU su: Prisvajanje kulturnih i istorijskih vrednosti, odnosno gubitak nacionalnog identiteta i suvereniteta; Kontrolisanje i iskorišćavanje siromašnih zemalja, Ekonomska nestabilnost EU i velika nezaposlenost njenih zemalja, Glasine da će EU da se raspadne; Uslovi koje je potrebno da Srbija ispuni pre ulaska u EU – npr. priznavanje Kosova; Komplikovanje postojećih problema pravnog sistema prilikom uslađivanja pravnih dokumenata sa standardima EU; Nedostatak perspektive da će ulaskom Srbije u EU život biti bolji; Odliv mozgova i nedostatak stručnih ljudi kao posledica iseljavanja zbog bolih plata; Skuplja hrana i životnih potrepština; Benefiti koje donosi usmeravanje inostrane politike ka zemljama kao što su Rusija i Kina

Stavovi mladih prema pitanjima koja se odnose na priznavanje Kosova i ulaska u EU se menjaju – na šta je celokupna situacija za vreme pandemije takođe uticala. Ipak, sama nezainteresovanost mladih za politiku i nepoverenje u institucije govori o tome da prvi i glavni koraci treba da budu informisanje i veće uključivanje mladih u procese koji se tiču važnih pitanja zemlje u kojoj se budućnost kreira danas, a ne prekosutra.

Sara Đurđević

WHAT DO YOUTH THINK ABOUT ENTERING SERBIA INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION?

One of the most controversial issues in Serbian international politics is Serbia’s entry into the European Union (EU). Because of reasons that range from recognition of Kosovo as one of the conditions to questioning the benefits that Serbia derives from it.

According to the statistics presented in the Alternative Report on the Position of Youth in the Republic of Serbia (KOMS, 2021), 39% of young people support Serbia’s accession to the EU, 33% are against it, and 28% have no opinion. 24.6% of youth plan to move out of the country, which is followed by 25.1% of those who think about it but have not started the planning process. The first wish to emigrate in 62.6% of cases are countries of Western Europe, while 12.6% of them are in favor of the United States.

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In the previous seven days, I conducted informal interviews with twenty young people living in more developed or less developed parts of Serbia, who have different levels of education, the work they do, the environment in which they move.

Despite the differences, the first thing that can be noticed during the conversations is that most respondents emphasize their lack of information about the topic. And insecurity about the relevance of their answers.

The responses usually included a review of the pros and cons of Serbia’s EU accession and a concluding uncertainty about a more favorable option. The benefits of joining the EU were mostly seen by those who are thinking to go or have already gone to live, study or work abroad.

The interviewed young people stated the following reasons FOR Serbia’s entry into the EU: Economic stability – increasing living standards, investing in infrastructure, cheaper food, and technology; Visa liberalization and travel without passports – an easy movement that brings more opportunities for education and employment; Measures that affect the protection of the environment – for example, recycling; Solving the problem of corruption and nepotism; Independence of institutions and increased opportunities for cooperation with other companies.

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In contrast, the reasons AGAINST Serbia’s accession to the EU are:Appropriation of cultural and historical values, loss of national identity and sovereignty; Controlling and exploiting poor countries; Economic instability of the EU and high unemployment of its countries; Rumors that the EU will fall apart; Conditions that Serbia needs to meet before joining the EU – for example, recognition of Kosovo; Complicating the existing problems of the law system in harmonizing legal documents with EU standards; Lack of perspective that life will be better with Serbia’s accession to the EU; Brain drain and lack of skilled workers as a result of emigration due to higher salary; More expensive food and necessities, The benefits of directing foreign policy towards countries such as Russia and China.

Young people’s attitudes towards issues related to the recognition of Kosovo and EU accession are changing – which was also influenced by the overall situation during the pandemic. However, the very lack of interest of young people in politics and distrust in institutions shows that the first and main steps should be informing. And involving young people in the processes connected with important issues of the country where the future is being created today, not the day after tomorrow.

Sara Đurđević

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